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Wednesday, March 31, 2010

SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES

The classical symptoms of DM (diabetes mellitus)are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).[11] Symptoms may develop quite rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 diabetes, particularly in children. However, in type 2 diabetes symptoms usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or completely absent. Type 1 diabetes may also cause a rapid yet significant weight loss (despite normal or even increased eating) and irreducible mental fatigue. All of these symptoms except weight loss can also manifest in type 2 diabetes in patients whose diabetes is poorly controlled, although unexplained weight loss may be experienced at the onset of the disease. Final diagnosis is made by measuring the blood glucose concentration.

When the glucose concentration in the blood is raised beyond its renal threshold (about 10 mmol/L, although this may be altered in certain conditions, such as pregnancy), reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubuli is incomplete, and part of the glucose remains in the urine (glycosuria). This increases the osmotic pressure of the urine and inhibits reabsorption of water by the kidney, resulting in increased urine production (polyuria) and increased fluid loss. Lost blood volume will be replaced osmotically from water held in body cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst.

Prolonged high blood glucose causes glucose absorption, which leads to changes in the shape of the lenses of the eyes, resulting in vision changes; sustained sensible glucose control usually returns the lens to its original shape. Blurred vision is a common complaint leading to a diabetes diagnosis; type 1 should always be suspected in cases of rapid vision change, whereas with type 2 change is generally more gradual, but should still be suspected.

Patients (usually with type 1 diabetes) may also initially present with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), an extreme state of metabolic dysregulation characterized by the smell of acetone on the patient's breath; a rapid, deep breathing known as Kussmaul breathing; polyuria; nausea; vomiting and abdominal pain; and any of many altered states of consciousness or arousal (such as hostility and mania or, equally, confusion and lethargy). In severe DKA, coma may follow, progressing to death. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency and requires immediate hospitalization.

A rarer but equally severe possibility is hyperosmolar nonketotic state, which is more common in type 2 diabetes and is mainly the result of dehydration due to loss of body water. Often, the patient has been drinking extreme amounts of sugar-containing drinks, leading to a vicious circle in regard to the water loss.

A number of skin rashes can occur in diabetes that are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.

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WHAT IS DIABETES?

The Balance of Glucose and Insulin:


Diabetes is a disorder that affects the way your body uses food for energy. Normally, the sugar you take in is digested and broken down to a simple sugar, known as glucose. The glucose then circulates in your blood where it waits to enter cells to be used as fuel. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps move the glucose into cells. A healthy pancreas adjusts the amount of insulin based on the level of glucose. But, if you have diabetes, this process breaks down, and blood sugar levels become too high.



There are two main types of full-blown diabetes. People with Type 1 diabetes are completely unable to produce insulin. People with Type 2 diabetes can produce insulin, but their cells don't respond to it. In either case, the glucose can't move into the cells and blood glucose levels can become high. Over time, these high glucose levels can cause serious complications.



Pre-Diabetes:

Pre-diabetes means that the cells in your body are becoming resistant to insulin or your pancreas is not producing as much insulin as required. Your blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be called diabetes. This is also known as "impaired fasting glucose" or "impaired glucose tolerance". A diagnosis of pre-diabetes is a warning sign that diabetes will develop later. The good news: You can prevent the development of Type 2 diabetes by losing weight, making changes in your diet and exercising.



What is Pre-Diabetes?

Type 1 Diabetes:

A person with Type 1 diabetes can't make any insulin. Type 1 most often occurs before age 30, but may strike at any age. Type 1 can be caused by a genetic disorder. The origins of Type 1 are not fully understood, and there are several theories. But all of the possible causes still have the same end result: The pancreas produces very little or no insulin anymore. Frequent insulin injections are needed for Type 1.



Type 1 Diabetes

Insulin and Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes:

A person with Type 2 diabetes has adequate insulin, but the cells have become resistant to it. Type 2 usually occurs in adults over 35 years old, but can affect anyone, including children. The National Institutes of Health state that 95 percent of all diabetes cases are Type 2. Why? It's a lifestyle disease, triggered by obesity, a lack of exercise, increased age and to some degree, genetic predisposition.



Type 2 Diabetes

Top 6 Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes:

Gestational diabetes (GD) affects about 4 percent of all pregnant women. It usually appears during the second trimester and disappears after the birth of the baby.

Like Type 1 and Type 2, your body can't use glucose effectively and blood glucose levels get too high. When GD is not controlled, complications can affect both you and your baby. Your doctor will help you work out a diet and exercise plan, and possibly medication. Having GD increases your risk for developing it again during future pregnancies and also raises your risk of Type 2 diabetes later in life.

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Pills for Diabetes


Types of pills for Diabetes


Several types of pills are prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes:

Metformin helps reduce LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and is not associated with weight gain, and is the only antidiabetic drug that has been conclusively shown to prevent the cardiovascular complications of diabetes. As of 2010, metformin is one of only two oral antidiabetics in the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines (the other being glibenclamide).

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors prevent the breakdown of starches, such as bread, potatoes, and pasta in the intestine. They also slow the breakdown of some sugars. Their action slows the rise in blood glucose levels after a meal.

Biguanides reduce the amount of sugar produced by the liver and make muscle tissue more sensitive to insulin so that sugar can be absorbed.

DPP-4 inhibitors help improve A1C without causing low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). They work by preventing the breakdown of a naturally occurring compound in the body.

Sulfonylureas and meglitinides stimulate the beta cells in the pancreas to release more insulin. Example of medcine that contain / categorized as sulfonylureas is Gliclazide 

Thiazolidinediones help insulin work better in the muscle and fat and also reduce the liver’s sugar production. They target insulin resistance.


Lovastatin is in a class of medications called HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors ( a member of the drug class of statins) used for lowering cholesterol (hypolipidemic agent) in those with hypercholesterolemia and so preventing cardiovascular disease. Lovastatin is a naturally occurring drug found in food such as oyster mushrooms and red yeast rice. It works by slowing the production of cholesterol in the body. As bad diabetes's blood which is high in sugar could cause damage to blood vessels wall then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease, lovastatin normally prescribed to diabetes patient to reduce the risk. It is advisable to use lovastatin together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of cholesterol (a fat-like substance) and other fatty substances in the blood.

Diabetes pills don't work for everyone. Although you may find that your blood glucose levels go down when you start taking pills, your blood sugar levels may not reach the normal range.
What are the chances that diabetes pills will work for you? Your chances are good if you developed diabetes recently or have needed little or no insulin to keep your blood glucose levels near normal. This information of pills for diabetes is for my personal record and future reference

For record - pills taken during treatment:
Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate 400mg tab 2 times per day before meal - Antibiotic - April 2011
Unasyn (Sultamicilin 375) 2 times per day after meal - Antibiotic
Prolase 10,000 units tab 2 pills 3 times per day (chew / sip) - (anti swell)


Other Medicines
Curiosin - gel to strengthen skin 
Dermacyn - an antiseptic mixture used to clean diabetes wound. unlike iodine and eusol, Dermacyn have no colouring and harsh ingredient  thus it will not prohibit flesh formation.

Remember, medicine is just part of your treatment

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